The Russian invasion of Ukraine has had an enormous impact on the energy supply of European States. The question of how and at what pace Europe could free itself from its dependence on Russian energy supplies was crucial to the sustainability of the EU sanctions imposed after the invasion.
How have European countries responded so far and what adaptation strategies have been developed for the medium and long term?
Our documents describe how Europe has responded to the resulting supply crisis following the invasion and how this affects the long-term energy policies of several EU countries.
Finland quickly diversified the sourcing of oil, helped by the technical readiness by the main refinery. The use of natural gas was fairly low compared to Central Europe, and direct gas import via pipeline has ceased, replaced by LNG imports from global markets. The decoupling has been made easier by two factors: a determined national will to decouple and the fact that consumers faced the effects mainly indirectly due to increases of price in the global and European markets.